Research Seminars are hosted by visiting economists who present their work and lead discussions. Please join us spontaneously seminars are open to all.
Coordinators: Martin Guzi, Štěpán Mikula and Tommaso Reggiani
List of all seminars organized since 2013 is here.
40 years of Tax Evasion Games: a Meta-AnalysisLecturer: Antoine Malézieux Affiliation: University of Exeter P201 11:00 AM
Year 2018 marked the 40th anniversary of the first ever Tax Evasion Game published in the Journal of Public Economics by Friedland, Maital, and Rutenberg. This game has since been the subject of many other publications (more than 140 articles). In the present study, we collect more than 60 datasets recreating a Tax Evasion Game and run a meta-analysis on more than 220,000 observations and 15,000 subjects. The aim here is to set the impact of three types of variables (public policy, experimental context and sociodemographic of participants) on lab tax compliance.
The public policy variables are: tax rate, tax regime (progressive or proportional taxes); type of audit (endogenous or random audit); audit probability; fine size, and amnesty. The experimental variables are: framing of the experiment (loaded or not); way to ask for compliance in the instructions (relaxed or not); origin of income (earned or windfall); nature of income (self-employed or salaried job); redistribution to participants, public good fund, and pool of subjects (students or taxpayers). The sociodemographic variables are: age; gender; income; and studies.
Financial Speculations, Stress, and Gender: A Laboratory ExperimentLecturer: Lubos Cingl Affiliation: University of Economics in Prague 11:00 AM
In this paper we study the effects of acute stress on individual financial speculative behavior using a controlled laboratory experiment with 208 men and women. We employ a recently introduced measure that captures individual speculative behavior, the Speculation Elicitation Task, and an efficient stress-inducing procedure, the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, and we pay special attention to the gender-specific effects. Our design allows for a separation of the main channels behind the treatment effects. We observe strong gender differences: The treatment – stress-inducing – procedure increases men's willingness to speculate compared to control men, but it decreases it for women by about the same amount. As we do not observe any change in the task-specific risk-preferences, concentration, and only a little change in the strategic expectations of shift in others' behavior and in beliefs, we conclude that the behavioral change is driven by the change in preferences, although in the opposite directions for both genders. The analysis of salivary cortisol and subjective mood shows that the subjects were under a considerable level of stress.
The Good Outcomes of Bad News. A Randomized Field Experiment on Formatting Breast Cancer Screening InvitationsLecturer: Luca Corazzini Affiliation: University of Venice P201 11:00 AM
We ran a population-level randomized field experiment to ascertain whether a costless manipulation of the informational content (restricted or enhanced information) and the framing (gain or loss framing) of the invitation letter to the national breast cancer screening program affects the take-up rate. Our experiment involved more than 6,000 women aged 50- 69 targeted by the screening program of the Province of Messina in Sicily, randomly assigned to receive different invitation letter formats. Using administrative data from the Local Health Authority archives, we show that giving enhanced loss-framed information about the risks of not having a mammography increases take-up rate by about 25 percent with respect to all other treatments (no information; restricted gain-framed information; restricted loss-framed information; enhanced gain-framed information). Results are stronger for subjects living farther away from the screening site. For them, the manipulation may indicate higher perceived risks of negative outcomes that makes it worthwhile to participate in the screening program, in spite of longer travel time.
The Effectiveness of Hiring Subsidies for Older WorkersLecturer: Bernhard J. Schmidpeter Affiliation: University of Essex 10:00 AM
Misfortunes Never Come Singly: Consecutive Weather Shocks and Mortality in RussiaLecturer: Vladimir Otrachshenko Affiliation: Nova School of Business and Economics, Lisbon P201 11:00 AM
This paper examines the impacts of extremely hot and cold days on mortality in Russia, using a 25-year regional panel data. Unlike other studies, the sequence of those extreme days is also taken into account, that is, the impacts of both single and consecutive (i.e. heat waves and cold spells) extreme days are estimated simultaneously. We demonstrate the importance of accounting for the sequence of extreme days. We also disentangle the impacts of those extremes by age and gender. The findings suggest that single hot days increase mortality, while single cold days do not affect mortality. On the other hand, both consecutive hot and consecutive cold days increase mortality in females and males for all age groups, although males are affected more severely. Overall, consecutive days with extreme temperatures impose considerable costs to society in terms of years of life lost. Thus, ignoring the sequences of extreme days that are likely to increase in the future because of climate change may have critical implications for mitigation policies.
Work Motivation and TeamsLecturer: Rupert Sausgruber Affiliation: WU in Vienna 11:00 AM
We provide a new measure of work motivation and show that motivation shapes the effects of team incentives and observation by peers on performance. In particular, we measure motivation to work hard as the deviation from the money-maximizing benchmark in a real-effort experiment. While we find that average output increases in response to team incentives and observation, we find that highly motivated workers do not respond. The reason is that highly motivated workers already work hard and increasing effort even further is very costly to them.
TBALecturer: Jaromír Kovařík Affiliation: University of the Basque Country P201 12:00 AM
Daughters and DivorceLecturer: Jan Kabátek Affiliation: University of Melbourne ESF MU ROOM MT205 1:30 PM • 6/21/2018
What makes couples with daughters more likely to divorce than couples with sons? Using Dutch registry and U.S. survey data, we show that daughters are associated with higher divorce risks, but only when they are 13-18 years old. These age-specific results rule out explanations involving overarching son preferences and selection. Our findings are consistent with causal mechanisms involving relationship dynamics in families with teenage children. Survey evidence buttresses this interpretation. Subsample analyses show that the magnitude of the effect is linked to parental gender norms and that the effect is absent for fathers who grew up with sisters.
Migration Policy Effects and EffectivenessLecturer: Mathias Czaika Affiliation: Danube University Krems ESF MU Room P106 1:15 PM • 5/29/2018
Mathias Czaika is a Professor in Migration and Globalisation at Danube University Krems in Austria. Mathias was formerly Director of International Migration Institute (IMI) at the University of Oxford in the UK.
How to fix the existing copyright enforcementLecturer: Lenka Fiala Affiliation: Tilburg University S308 1:00 PM • 5/22/2018
Whether it is copyright infringement, hate speech or terrorist content, Internet intermediaries like Facebook, Twitter or YouTube are expected to essentially do the government's job -- enforcing the law. The legal scheme under which a lot of such delegated enforcement takes place is often referred to as notice \& takedown. According to empirical evidence, it leads to over-notification, over-compliance by providers and under-assertion of rights by affected content creators. We re-create these existing problems in a laboratory and then test a mechanism to address two of them: the overcompliance by providers, and the lack of complaints by creators. Through experiment, we show that our proposed solution gives more power to the users, who realize higher profits due to an improved accuracy of providers' assessment of content and leads to a significant reduction in over-compliance by providers.